Understanding Cognitive Biases in Trading: A Comprehensive Guide

Cognitive Bias That Can Affect Your Trading

Understanding Cognitive Biases in Trading: A Comprehensive Guide

Last Updated on 7 days by John Piper


Welcome to our comprehensive guide on cognitive biases and their impact on trading decisions. At AvaTrade, we understand the importance of recognizing and mitigating cognitive biases to make rational and objective investment choices. In this article, we will delve into 11 common cognitive biases that can affect your trading performance. By gaining a deep understanding of these biases, you can develop strategies to overcome their negative effects and enhance your success in the market. Let’s get started!

What Are Cognitive Biases?

Cognitive biases are systematic flaws in reasoning that can lead to erroneous decision-making in investment activities. As the saying goes, “you are your own worst enemy” when it comes to investing. As humans, we are naturally inclined to seek shortcuts and avoid complexities. However, this tendency can be dangerous when it comes to investing. Cognitive biases have the power to influence your decision-making process, leading to subjectively wrong investment choices. Therefore, it is crucial to recognize and understand your personal biases to ensure they do not hinder your path to success.

Cognitive BiasDefinition and ExamplesImpact on TradingOvercoming Bias
Confirmation Bias🧠 Looking for supporting evidence, ignoring contrary infoClinging to losing positions, biased investment decisionsConsider both positive and negative views
Hindsight Bias🎯 Believing past success was predictableOverconfidence, taking unnecessary risksMaintain humility, acknowledge unpredictability
Recency Bias📅 Giving more weight to recent infoNeglecting older data, incomplete analysisThoroughly evaluate all available information
Availability Heuristic🤔 Making decisions based on easily recalled informationRelying on personal trends, overlooking market trendsBase decisions on comprehensive analysis
Herd Mentality👥 Following the crowdIncreased risk, price bubblesConduct independent research and critical evaluation
Anchoring Bias⚓️ Overvaluing a single piece of informationIgnoring other factors, biased decision-makingConsider multiple factors, avoid fixation on one data point
Loss Aversion Bias💔 Fear of lossesAvoiding necessary risks, missed opportunitiesBalance risk and reward, accept losses when necessary
Narrative Fallacy📚 Preferring compelling stories over solid analysisOverlooking stable investments, chasing risky trendsEvaluate investments based on inherent value
Representativeness Heuristic🔄 Assuming stronger correlations than existMisinterpreting market relationshipsConduct thorough analysis, consider actual correlations
Status Quo Bias🛌 Resisting changeStagnation, missed opportunitiesRemain open-minded, adapt to new information
Blind Spot Bias👓 Recognizing biases in others, ignoring own biasesLimited perspective, resistance to alternative viewsFoster self-awareness, consider independent opinions

This comparison table provides an overview of the different cognitive biases discussed in the article, their definitions and examples, their impact on trading decisions, and strategies to overcome them. By understanding and addressing these biases, traders can make more informed and objective investment choices in the market.

How Cognitive Biases Affect Trading

Investing is inherently decision-oriented, and our existing belief systems heavily influence these decisions. This is where cognitive biases come into play. For example, investors often interpret new market information based on their preconceived notions, shaping it to fit their expectations. Emotional attachment to money further intensifies the psychological aspect of investing. Thus, it becomes vital to be aware of cognitive biases and learn how to control our innate human brain to prevent it from working against us in the market.

Confirmation Bias: Seeking Convenient Information

Confirmation bias is a common cognitive bias where individuals tend to seek information that supports their existing beliefs or conclusions while conveniently disregarding any conflicting or inconvenient information. In investing, this bias can be perilous as it leads to holding onto losing positions. To mitigate this bias, it is essential to seriously consider both positive and negative views when evaluating any asset.

Hindsight Bias: The Illusion of Predictability

Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to believe that past positive outcomes were a result of our ability to predict and understand market movements accurately. In contrast, adverse outcomes were attributed to unforeseeable events. This mindset can be dangerous, as it oversimplifies investing and encourages investors to take unnecessary risks based on false confidence. It is crucial to remain cautious and avoid falling into the trap of thinking we can predict the market with certainty.

Recency Bias: The Weight of Recent Information

Recency bias is the inclination to assign more significance to recent information than older information. Investors under the influence of recency bias tend to prioritize current events, often disregarding older data they perceive as irrelevant. When making investment decisions, it is crucial to consider both new and historical information carefully to gain a comprehensive understanding of the market.

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Availability Heuristic: Decisions Based on What Comes to Mind

Availability heuristic bias is the tendency to make decisions based on readily available information. Investors influenced by this bias often rely on recent memorable news, events, or hype when making investment choices. However, personal trends or what comes to mind at any time may not accurately reflect actual market trends. It is essential to base investment decisions on thorough analysis rather than relying solely on easily recalled information.

Herd Mentality: The Bandwagon Effect

Herd mentality bias, also known as the Bandwagon effect, is the tendency to follow the crowd rather than conduct independent research and form individual ideas. This bias provides investors with a false sense of security, as they gain comfort from holding positions that others also hold. However, following the crowd can lead to price bubbles and significant losses. While resisting the allure of popular investment opportunities may be challenging, it is important to evaluate each opportunity independently and critically.

Anchoring Bias: The Weight of a Single Piece of Information

Anchoring bias occurs when investors assign excessive weight to a single piece of information while making important investment decisions. For example, focusing solely on the current price of a stock without considering other factors such as industry trends, economic conditions, and company management. To make informed investment decisions, it is crucial to consider multiple factors and avoid fixating on a single data point.

Loss Aversion Bias: The Fear of Loss

Loss aversion bias reflects the natural human tendency to prioritize avoiding losses over pursuing gains. Investors influenced by this bias may become overly cautious, clouding their judgment when evaluating potential opportunities. It is important to strike a balance between risk and reward, accepting losses when necessary and seizing high-probability opportunities.

Narrative Fallacy: Attraction to “Good Stories”

Narrative fallacy refers to the inclination to be attracted to investments with compelling stories while overlooking potentially more reliable alternatives. In the stock market, investors may be drawn to risky growth stocks, disregarding stable stocks of well-established companies. To make well-informed investment decisions, it is important to evaluate investments based on their inherent value and not solely on captivating narratives.

Representativeness Heuristic: Assuming Strong Correlations

Representativeness heuristic bias occurs when investors assume that closely related assets share a stronger and closer correlation than they actually do. For instance, assuming that a rise in gold prices implies an automatic rise in silver prices. Investors should exercise caution and conduct thorough analysis to determine the actual correlations between assets before making investment decisions.

Status Quo Bias: Resistance to Change

Status quo bias refers to the tendency to resist making decisions that may alter the current situation of an investment. This bias stems from an irrational desire to maintain the status quo. Investors influenced by this bias may be hesitant to change their views or adjust their positions, even when presented with compelling evidence. To make objective investment decisions, it is important to remain open-minded and adaptable to new information.

Blind Spot Bias: Recognizing Others’ Biases, Ignoring Our Own

Blind spot bias occurs when investors recognize biases in others’ views or opinions but fail to acknowledge their own biases. This bias can hinder the consideration of alternative perspectives and limit investors’ ability to make objective decisions. It is crucial to remain self-aware and open to independent opinions and views about investments, as they can provide valuable insights and help mitigate our own blind spots.

Overcoming Trading Biases

While biases cannot be completely eliminated, their effects can be mitigated through conscious effort. One effective strategy is to develop a solid trading plan that incorporates your investment strategy, risk management approach, and considerations for trading psychology. By adhering to a rule-based trading plan and maintaining the flexibility to adjust it when necessary, you can make consistent and objective investment decisions while minimizing the influence of biases.


In conclusion, understanding and addressing cognitive biases is paramount for successful trading. By familiarizing yourself with the various cognitive biases that can impact decision-making, you can actively work towards making rational and objective investment choices. At AvaTrade, we encourage you to develop a disciplined approach to investing, armed with knowledge about your biases and strategies to mitigate their effects. By continuously striving for self-awareness and maintaining a well-rounded perspective, you can confidently navigate the complex world of trading.

John Piper
John Piper
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John Piper has been involved with markets since his early twenties. In the late 1980s he started to trade options full-time and did so right through the Crash of 1987 - an experience that prepared him to take full advantage of the current[when?] economic crisis and today's volatile markets.
Since 1989 John Piper has been the editor of The Technical Trader, the leading newsletter in the UK for those who trade in futures and options markets worldwide.